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1700 - 1799

During the eighteenth century, Africans and Europeans were becoming American. Most American Indians were being evicted and were pushed westward across the Appalachian Mountains. The Country began an experiment with a liberal democratic government burden, a continuing irritant that would prove increasingly dangerous. That democratic experiment coexisted with a slave labor system. It was sustained by the work and sacrifices of black, brown and red men and women as well as poor whites. Some of the founding Fathers understood the intrinsic evils of slavery and their implication for the new emerging nation,but in the end chose to tolerate and even defend it. They were most willing to bear the inherent contradiction (freedom vs. slavery) from its inception through may compromises, racialism,and its extreme manifestation. Consequently slavery remained the nation's fundamental flaw. In these critical years, the foundation for the this new nation's political,economic, and social institutions and cultural life and its multiracial society was laid.
  • 1700: The slave trade operates out of “Boston and supplies Africans to Virginia and the New England colonies.

    In his pamphlet the Selling of Joseph, judge Samuel Sewall of Massachusetts argues against slavery and advocates emancipation and education of African-American slaves.

  • 1704: Advertisement for slaves occupy a major place in the firs newspaper printed in the colonies, the Boston Newsletter.

  • 1705: In Virginia, African Americans are declared slaves for life unless they were Christians in their native lands or were free in a Christian country.

  • Massachusetts declares inter-racial- marriage between blacks and whites illegal and institutes fines for ministers who perform them. This law is not repealed until 1843.

  • 1706: In the colonies of New York and Virginia passed laws stipulating that slaves could not become free by Christian baptism.

  • 1707: Free Blacks serve in the Massachusetts militia.

  • 1708: There are 12,000 African Americans in Virginia.

  • 1710: The government of Virginia officially frees a slave Will for exposing a slave revolt.

There are 44,866 slaves in the British colonies

  • 1711: French colonist Elias Neau opens a school for enslaved African Americans in New York City.

  • 1712: A slave insurrection occurred in New York City, resulting in the death of 9 whites and the execution of 21 African Americans.

  • 1713: England secures the exclusive right to transport slaves to the Spanish colonies in North America.

  • 1715: The total population or English colonies in North America stands at 434,600, of whom 58,859 are of African ancestry.

  • 1716: Slave ships begin delivering African slaves to Louisiana.

  • A Massachusetts pamphlet declares that slavery discourages new settlements on the frontier by limiting job opportunities for whites.

  • 1717: In Massachusetts, the Puritan clergyman Cotton Mather hold evening classes to instruct African Americans and Indians in Christianity.

  • 1721: South Carolina limits the vote to free white Christian men.

  • 1724: The Black Code is enacted in New Orleans, French Territory, to control blacks and banish Jews.

  • Boston imposes a curfew on non-whites.


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Race, Slavery, Revolution

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